Lund, Sweden


Clarity in Emergency Medicine

This checklist relates to a systematic interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram.


  1. O

  • Overview: rate?

  • Overview: rhythm?


  1. P

  • P wave: positive in lead II? signs of atrial hypertrophy?

  • PR interval: duration? depression?


  1. Q

  • Pathological Q waves?

  • QRS complexes: wide? bundle-branch block pattern?


  1. R

  • Axis deviation?

  • R wave:  signs of ventricular hypertrophy


  1. S

  • S wave: signs of ventricular hypertrophy?

  • ST segment: elevation or depression?


  1. T

  • T waves: peaked? inverted?

  • QTc time: prolonged?


  1. +

  • Additional findings (e.g. U wave, J wave)?